Sericulture is one of the agro-industry where cultivation of mulberry plants and rearing of silkworms for production of silk takes place. It is a crop of 25 days which earns you every month minimum Rs50,000/- if you take proper care.
Now Sericulture is offering huge employment and financial status for many young entrepreneurs and young farmers.
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Sericulture Farming Method:
Sericulture is nothing but rearing of silkworms by feeding mulberry leaves. The silkworms which feed on mulberry leaves releases larva after going through 5 different phases.
The first two stages need specific temperature and humidity conditions. The initial two phases were called Chawki Rearing.
Chawki rearing is done in a separate area as it needs hygienic and cool area. Because in initial two phases the silkworms will get the infection even for small changes in climatic conditions. In this stage, the feed is given by cutting leaves into small pieces.
After two stages the silkworms will shift to normal beds which are maintained with proper temperature and humidity. In this stage, the feed is given directly without cutting leaves.
In third and fourth phase also the worms get affect with fevers. So proper care has to take. In third and fourth phase the worms will try to grow bigger and bigger. The worm spins a cocoon of silk around itself.
Soil and Climate For Mulberry Cultivation:
This sericulture process mainly requires soil for growing mulberry plants and climate for growing silkworms. Mulberry Plants can grow maximum in any type of soil.
The mulberry is one-time cropping which lasts for maximum years. These trees need proper sunlight and minimum water for good growth. Proper care has to take for growing mulberry trees growth and life expectancy.
There are different types of mulberry which are selected mainly on the type of soil and availability of water. So please concern specific agricultural office for selecting the type.
Silkworms Rearing Houses:
Silkworms grow in 5 phases in which first two phases is called as Chawki rearing. For this based on the capacity of rearing eggs size of the room can construct.
After Chawki period the phase of rearing is late age silkworm rearing. In this phase, silkworms need proper ventilation and also humidity.
There is a possibility of gases generation from silkworm excreta. So proper ventilation helps you to remove those gases which harm silkworms.
There are some standard sizes for construction of houses for rearing silkworms. We can those standards from concern agricultural officer. Mostly 50 X 20 X 18 (feet)
Sprinklers will help you to cool the temperature in the house. So sprinklers are provided on the roof of the house to cool the house mainly in summer season.
Maintenance for Silkworm Rearing and Mulberry Cultivation:
- For every new crop, the house has to clean with water by applying bleaching powder or any other.
- During rearing proper care has to take while visitors are visiting house because of the failure results in the death of worms.
- Proper Temperature maintenance and humidity are very important.
- For growing of mulberry, we should use mainly organic fertilizers which mainly helps silkworms to grow healthy.
- Regular supply of water for plants is necessary to get continuous yield.
- Unnecessary plants in between mulberry have to remove and proper care has to take in avoiding those plants as food to silkworms.
Value Of Silk in Market:
The cocoon obtained after 5 phases will collect and has to supply to market within 72 hrs. This helps you from the damage of cocoon has it need some maintenance within 72hrs.
In market 1kg of cocoon prices from Rs400/- to Rs500/-. On average 100eggs can yield up to 70kg to 80kg of the cocoon.
On average we can grow up to 300eggs which almost gives on average of 200kgs to 250kgs of cocoon which prices almost gives an income of Rs 1,00,000/-.